Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML, pronounced sam-el) is an XML-based, open-standard data format for exchanging authentication and authorization data between parties, in particular, between an identity provider and a service provider. Electronic Key Entry is the entry of cryptographic keys into a cryptographic module using electronic methods such as a smart card or a key-loading device. Each ACL contains a list of access control entries (ACE) that specifies which users or system processes are granted access, denied access or are audited for a securable object. This list is implemented differently by each operating system. Octets are generally displayed using a variety of representations, for example in the hexadecimal, decimal, or octal number systems. Uncover knowledge areas in which you excel and where you want to expand. (Also known as authorization.). A common strategy is based on the 3-2-1 rule: you should have three copies of your data - the original and 2 backups; you should use 2 different types of media (such as a physical media (such as a hard drive or tape) and a cloud storage solution); and do not store the three copies of data in 1 plane (i.e. SCADA Server is the device that acts as the master in a scada system. The record of a user kept by a computer to control their access to files and programs. Since there is a limit on how much data a buffer can hold, any surplus data overflows to the adjoining buffers. A Ymodem is a file-transfer protocol developed by Chuck Forsburg, that is similar to the enhanced 1K version of Xmodem. security and their implications for security regulation. The action of dividing a data set into blocks enables the algorithm to encrypt data of any size. A forward cipher is one of the two functions of the block cipher algorithm that is determined by the choice of a cryptographic key. Synchronization is the signal made up of a distinctive pattern of bits that network hardware looks for to signal that start of a frame. The goal of a phishing attack may be to learn logon credentials, credit card information, system configuration details or other company, network, computer or personal identity information. (See botnet.). Digital thieves then use robot networks of thousands of zombie computers to carry out attacks on other people and cover up their tracks. . data-in-transit); the two hashes are then compared using an XOR Boolean operation. A form of multi-factor authentication. An Issue-Specific Policy is intended to address specific needs within an organisation, such as a password policy. LAN (Local Area Network) — An interconnection of devices (i.e. A cookie is a small packet of information which your computer’s browser stores when you visit a web server. Star networks are one of the most common computer network topologies. A Malware can be any software that is used to interrupt or disrupt computer operations, gather sensitive information, or gain access to certain files or programs. "A proximity sensor is a non-contact sensor with the ability to detect the presence of a target within a specified range. The easiest way is to use a screen saver that engages either on request or after a specified short period of time. IP Spoofing is also known as IP address forgery or a host file hijack. This becomes a bug when events don't happen in the order the programmer planned. The use of scripted tests which are used to test software for all possible input is should expect. It is a network node that is assigned a network layer host address. Permissions is the authorized actions that a subject can perform with an object (that is read, write, modify or delete). It is a way of specifying the location of publicly available information on the Internet. A Black Hat Hacker is the “bad guy” who violates computer security for little reasons beyond maliciousness or personal gain. Digital Forensics is the process of procuring, analyzing and interpreting electronic data to present it in as an acceptable evidence in a legal proceedings in a court of law. The main functions of intrusion prevention systems are to identify malicious activity, log information about this activity, attempt to block/stop it, and report it. Investigation The investigation seeks to determine the circumstances of the incident. It is used to prevent inference attacks. If a black hat decides to target you, it’s a great thing to have a white hat around. A keylogger is a spyware that is designed to log every keystroke made on a computer. A reverse proxy is a device or service that is placed between a client and a server in a network. A variable-frequency drive (VFD) is a adjustable-speed drive used in electro-mechanical drive systems to control AC motor speed and torque. In a stream cipher, each plaintext digit is encrypted one at a time with the corresponding digit of the keystream, to give a digit of ciphertext stream. ( Learn more ) Data Backup is a copy of computer data taken and stored elsewhere to be used later in the case of hardware malfunction or data loss due to cyber-attack. The payload is the part of the malware program that actually executes its designed task. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a set of rules or protocol that is used along with the Internet Protocol to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet. Web server is used to refer either the entire system, or specifically to the software that accepts and supervises the HTTP requests. A source port is a port that a host uses to connect to a server. A security relevant change is any change to a system’s configuration, environment, information content, functionality, or users which has the potential to change the risk imposed upon its continued operations. A Trojan, or Trojan Horse, is a malicious program disguised to look like a valid program, making it difficult to distinguish from programs that are supposed to be there. A hot wash is a debrief conducted immediately after an exercise or test with the staff and participants. link jacking — A potentially unethical practice of redirecting a link to a middle-man or aggregator site or location rather than the original site the link seemed to indicate it was directed towards. Security information and event management (SIEM). A Symmetric key is a cryptographic key that is used in a symmetric cryptographic algorithm. Computer Forensics is the process of analyzing computer devices which are suspected for crime, with the aim of gathering evidence for presentation in a court of law. ), pen testing — A means of security evaluation where automated tools and manual exploitations are performed by security and attack experts. "Maintenance is any act of preventing malfunction of equipment or restoring its operating capability. plaintext/ciphertext pairs for a given encryption algorithm). Spim is unwanted, unsolicited instant messages from someone you don't know. A programmable logic controller (PLC), or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer which has been ruggedised and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis. A worm can become devastating if not isolated and removed. Integrity is verified through the use of cryptographic hashing. A File name anomaly is also a file name inconsistent with the content of the file (e.g., renaming a graphics file with a non-graphical extension). Confidentiality ensures that rules are set that places restrictions on access to, or sharing of information with the aim of preserving and protecting the privacy of the information. Generally, a data breach results in internal data being made accessible to external entities without authorization. The length of the key also determines the key space, which is the range of values between the binary digits being all zeros and all ones from which the key can be selected. This form of authentication requires the visitor provide their username (i.e. An app attack describes the scenario when a user unknowingly installs a malicious app on a device, which in turn steals their personal data. It is a combination of logical/technical-, physical- and personnel-focused countermeasures, safeguards and security controls. Security Audit is an independent review and examination of a system's activity records to determine if system control is adequate. It evaluates the possible risk to tangible and intangible assets such as personal, infrastructure, data and goodwill. Dynamic Ports are otherwise known as private ports, these ports ranging from port number 49,152 to 65, 535 do not need any registration; these ports help any computer application communicate with any other application or program that uses transmission control protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). A bastion host is a special services computer on a network that is designed to withstand attacks. Password cracks work by comparing every encrypted dictionary word against the entries in system password file until a match is found. digital certificate — A means by which to prove identity or provide authentication commonly by means of a trusted third-party entity known as a certificate authority. Asymmetric encryption is used to provide secure symmetric key generation, secure symmetric key exchange (via digital envelopes created through the use of the recipient's public key) verification of source, verification/control of recipient, digital signature (a combination of hashing and use of the sender's private key) and digital certificates (which provides third-party authentication services). other terms commonly used include emergency shutdown system (ess), safety shutdown system (ssd), and safety interlock system (sis). Enterprise Risk Management is the processes used by an enterprise to manage risks to its mission. This criteria can be: when a certain time is met, when a certain file is accessed, or when a certain key combination is pressed. When a data packet is received at one port, it is transmitted to the other ports on the hub. Packet sniffing requires that the network interface card be placed into promiscuous mode in order to disable the MAC (Media Access Control) address filter which would otherwise discard any network communications not intended for the specific local network interface. The false website will often look and operate similarly to the legitimate site and focus on having the victim provide their logon credentials and potentially other personal identity information such as answers to their security questions, an account number, their social security number, mailing address, email address and/or phone number. A single loop controller controls a very small process or a critical process. any act that ither prevents the failure or malfunction of equipment or restores its operating capability. Multi-homed is any computer host that has multiple IP addresses to connected networks. sniffing — See packet sniffing and eavesdropping. It includes set of rules and practices established to evaluate the conditions of the stakeholders (e.g. anti-virus (anti-malware) — A security program designed to monitor a system for malicious software. Personal firewalls is a software that controls network traffic to and from a computer. 2. Generally, a BYOD policy puts reasonable security limitations on which devices can be used on company property and severely limits access to sensitive company network resources. An insider has both physical access and logical access (through their network logon credentials). A Smurf Attack is a distributed denial-of-service attack where large numbers of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) packets a spoofed IP is broadcast to a computer network. Shadow Password Files are system files where encryption user password are stored so that they aren't available to people who try to break into the system. the single factor authentication) before performing an additional step. For example, in software, installation process abides by the vendor license agreement. Security Control Inheritance is a situation in which an information system or application receives protection from security controls (or portions of security controls) that are developed, implemented, assessed, authorized, and monitored by entities other than those responsible for the system or application; entities either internal or external to the organization where the system or application resides. A session is a virtual connection between two hosts by which network traffic is passed. OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) — An Internet community focused on understanding web technologies and exploitations. Stimulus is network traffic that initiates a connection or solicits a response. TERMS OF REFERENCE 1. A Data Owner is an executive entrusted with the data accuracy and integrity in an organization. Critical Infrastructure is the fundamental system of an organization that is important for its survival. The Morris Worm ( Internet worm) program was written by a graduate student at Cornell University, Robert Tappan Morris, and launched on November 2, 1988 from MIT. The multiplexed signal is transmitted over a communication channel, such as a cable. All computer programs require an operating system to provide the fundamental controls for controlling the computer. XHTML is a hybrid between XML and HTML and designed for network devices as a method of displaying web pages on network and portable devices. The Board will provide assurance to the Authority Board on delivery of the project in accordance with the agreed contract and in line with the needs of the UK cyber security profession. This is done by sending a SYN (synchronization) packet, as if to initiate a three-way handshake, to every port on the server. A pressure regulator is a device used to control the pressure of a gas or liquid. A digital certificate is based on the x.509 v3 standard. Biometrics is a type of security system, which uses unique physiological characteristics of a person such as fingerprints, DNA, hair for identification purposes. Membership . A security policy is usually comprised of standards, policies (or SOPs – Standard Operating Procedures) and guidelines. The chain of evidence shows who obtained the evidence, where the evidence came from, also who secured, had control and possession of the evidence. Identity cloning is often performed in order to hide the birth country or a criminal record of the attacker in order to obtain a job, credit or other secured financial instrument. External security testing is security testing conducted from outside the organization's security perimeter. block cipher — A type of symmetric encryption algorithm that divides data into fixed length sections and then performs the encryption or decryption operation on each block. If these systems are compromised, the result would be catastrophic. The SaaS provider is responsible for maintaining the application. (See hacker.). Threat Intelligence Information about specific impending attacks against the organization and is initially consumed by higher level security. Thus, by restricting access to information, data the risk to business objectives is limited. July 23, 2020 / Devon Milkovich. A security control is the management, operational, and technical control (i.e., safeguards or countermeasures) prescribed for an information system to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the system and its information. Even if it does not cause outright damage, a worm replicating out of control can exponentially consume system resources like memory and bandwidth until a system becomes unstable and unusable. Applications Now Available for City Colleges of Chicago’s New Cyber Security “Boot Camp”. GRC stands for governance, risk and compliance. SIS is a system that is composed of sensors, logic solvers, and final control elements whose purpose is to take the process to a safe state when predetermined conditions are violated. Link-state protocol is performed by every switching node, which creates a map of the connectivity to the network displaying all the nodes that are connected to other nodes. One octet can be used to represent decimal values ranging from to 255. It is used by enterprises with more than 5 employees, and can implement mandatory access control (MAC) or discretionary access control (DAC). SQL injection is a code injection technique that is used to attack data-driven applications. See also Denial of Service Attack. A Digital Certificate is a piece of information that guarantees that the sender is verified. A policy that directs all personnel to clear their desks at the end of each working day, and file everything appropriately. This makes hashing a one-way operation. Brief Terms of Reference (TOR) Assess the Information and Cyber Security Readiness of the Critical Infrastructure Service Providers 1. A Block cipher algorithm is a family of functions parameterized by a cryptographic key. In cryptography, a certificate authority is an entity that issues digital certificates. [Wikipedia]. A Bastion is a system of high level of security protection that offers very strong protection against attacks. Developed by one of ThreatConnect’s founders, and the primary methodology used by ThreatConnect, the Diamond Model breaks each cyber event into four vertices or nodes. External Escalation is the process of reporting a security breach to an individual or group outside the department, division or company in which it occurred. When a password has n-bits of guessing entropy then an attacker has as much difficulty guessing the average password as in guessing an n-bit random quantity. Authentication is the first element of the AAA services concept, which includes Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting. These are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. encryption key — The secret number value used by a symmetric encryption algorithm to control the encryption and decryption process. In cybersecurity, advanced persistent threat (APT) usually refers to a group, such as a foreign government, with both the capability and the intent to persistently target a specific entity. After IOCs have been identified in a process of incident response and computer forensics, they can be used for early detection of future attack attempts using intrusion detection systems and antivirus software. A control algorithm is a mathematical representation of the control action to be performed. Data Classification is a data management process that involves of categorizing and organizing data into different classes based on their forms, types, importance, sensitivity, and usage in an organization. It builds on other password-cracking attacks by adding numerals and symbols to dictionary words. However, when the victim uses the host file, the malicious payload is automatically deposited onto their computer system. An access path is a process where a specified quantity of material moves as a unit between work stations, while maintaining its unique identity. A payment card transaction where the supplier initially receives payment but the transaction is later rejected by the cardholder or the card issuing company. Network-based Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS) are placed at a strategic point (or points) to monitor the traffic on the network. Defense in Depth is the process of creating multiple layers of security to protect electronics and information resources against attackers. One-way encryption or one-way hash function is designed in a manner that it is hard to reverse the process. Advanced penetration testing is the process where a network is penetrated intentionally to discover vulnerabilities which make it open to harmful intruders. Authentication occurs after the initial step of identification (i.e. A User contingency plan is the alternative methods of continuing business operations if IT systems are unavailable. A multi-homed host is physically connected to multiple data links that can be on the same or different networks. Electronic commerce or ecommerce is any type of business, or commercial transaction, that involves the transfer of information across the Internet. Penetration is defined as gaining unauthorised access to sensitive information by evading a system's protections. Malicious SQL statements are inserted into an entry field for execution. "™, and "CyberCheckup"™ are trademarks of CyberPolicy, Inc. honeypot — A trap or decoy for attackers. RBAC (Role Based Access Control) manages access using labels of a job role that has been granted the permissions and privileges needed to accomplish a specific job or role. Intelligent Electronic Device refers to any device incorporating one or more processors with the capability to receive or send data/control from or to an external source (e.g., electronic multifunction meters, digital relays, controllers). Management, Suppliers, financiers, customers). Bandwidth is the volume of information that can pass through a network for a given period. Kerberos is a computer network authentication protocol allowing nodes to communicate over a non-secure network. The process ensures compliance with established security policies, detect breaches in security, and recommend any changes. The reference model defines seven layers of functions that take place at each end of a communication. asset — Anything that is used in and is necessary to the completion of a business task. Pressure Sensor is a sensor system that produces an electrical signal related to the pressure acting on it by its surrounding medium. An account manager in an organization is responsible for the management of sales and relationships with particular customers, so that they will continue to use the company for business. A master program is the program a black hat cracker uses to remotely transmit commands to malicious software. MSSP (managed security service provider) is an outsourced network security services. Remote diagnostics refers to diagnostics activities conducted by individuals communicating externally to an information system security perimeter. In most cases, the occurrence of the infection based on the drive-by download is unnoticed by the user/victim. Types of field devices include rtus, plcs, actuators, sensors, hmis, and associated communications. However, investigation resources like forensic tools, dirty networks, quarantine networks and consultation with law enforcement may be useful for the effective and rapid resolution of an emergency incident. patch management — The management activity related to researching, testing, approving and installing updates and patches to computer systems, which includes firmware, operating systems and applications. It is a process used to determine using which path a packet or datagram can be sent. Rules, filters or ACLs can be defined to indicate which traffic is allowed to cross the firewall. Python is a widely used high-level programming language for general-purpose programming, created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with physical layer components. Security Testing is the process to determine that an information system protects data and maintains functionality as intended. This is analogous to cryptanalysis applied to cryptography. The CAUDIT Cybersecurity Community of Practice (CoP) serves as both a strategic and functional vehicle. It includes risk assessment; cost-benefit analysis; the selection, implementation, and assessment of security controls; and the formal authorization to operate the system. We believe it is the magic bullet for all ailments, but technology alone will not protect your critical assets. A before and after hash can be compared in order to detect protection of or violation of integrity. A zombie is a malware program that can be used by a black hat cracker to remotely take control of a system, which is then used as a zombie drone for further attacks (e.g. These strengths include speed and security respectively. Attacks can take place at each end of a lower integrity level than their own data... Expose the security strategy and goals of various policy areas flow control Johannes Trithemius in his Steganographia from kind. 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Reserved for that indicator to evaluate compliance and/or discover violations windowing system does n't have a hat. Encryption or one-way hash function to data ( e.g., a user executing... Specifying the location of publicly available information on how much data a buffer can hold, any surplus data to! By users security policy of an operation or data that is not on the list an! Transforms ciphertext ( i.e remote network of an organisation 's security perimeter of a system random form of normal data.
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